Although many archaeological sites in the Philippines
are heavily looted and destroyed, some fossils and artifacts have been
retrieved for scientific study. This collection in Huluga, Cagayan de Oro
indicates that the area was settled around 350 AD, and possibly earlier.
The settlers were using stone and, later, metal tools. They had artistic
inclination, hunted large
terrestrial and aquatic mammals, and had direct or indirect trading with
According the Dr. Erlinda M. Burton, "The water level of Cagayan River then was higher than it is now and abounded in aquatic life, including several varieties of fresh-water fish, mollusks, and edible plants that grow along the banks of the river. Because of the rich natural resource, Huluga area became a haven for human habitation. It was probably occupied in different periods from the late Neolithic (new Stone Age) around 2000 years ago up until the onset of the Spanish regime in the Philippines. The earlier groups intermittently inhabited the area since they were more nomadic hunters and gatherers; but the later occupation seems to point a more semi- sedentary life to more sedentary station, wherein houses were permanently built. It is highly probable that the open site was occupied in different periods by different groups of people.
It is also evident that the inhabitants in the open site manufactured pottery of varied forms and types, such as cooking pots, jars, and dishes. Although the obsidian flakes and chips were found intermixed with the pottery materials, however, it does not necessarily mean that the bearers of obsidian materials were contemporaneous with the pottery making people; they could be older. Moreover, the great bulk of pottery shards collected from the open site could attest to the presence of a community, a settlement or village, not merely as a camping site as contended by a group who conducted an excavation in the open site two years ago ."
Some fossils and artifacts found in Huluga are not shown on this page.