Heritage Conservation Advocates
  Study Area

Misamis Oriental (Figure 1) is one of the provinces of Region X and situated in the center of the northern part of Mindanao. This province is bounded on the north by Mindanao Sea, on the west by Iligan City, on the south and southwest by the Provinces of Bukidnon and Lanao del Norte and on the east by Agusan del Norte. Misamis Oriental has large bays and the terrain is rugged and hilly with varying elevations from the sea level. Because of the different climatic conditions resulting from varying elevations, several varieties of economic plants are cultivated. This province is an agricultural area with more than half of the total workers involved in agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing.

This province has a land area of 3,507.1 square kilometers and consists of two cities and 24 municipalities. The capital city is Cagayan de Oro (Figure 2) which is the central part of the province's domestic and international trade. The name of the city was taken from the words Kagayhan meaning shame and oro which means gold. It was declared a city on June 15, 1950 by a virtue of Republic Act no. 521 by late President Elpidio Quirino. It lies exactly at the latitude 8 degree 30' north and at longitude 124 degree 40' east and is bounded on north by the Macajalar Bay, on the east by the Municipality of Tagoloan, on the south by the Provinces of Agusan del Norte and Bukidnon and on the west by the Municipality of Opal. The area outside the city proper is generally rugged, mountainous, hilly with several gullys and river system and narrow coastal lowland. The city's climate is characterized by wet season from June to November and dry season from December to May. The texture of the soil in the area ranges from sand and loam to clay loam but predominantly clay. These soils exhibit variation in colors from light gray to reddish brown to black and low in organic matter content. The consistency varies from loose and friable to moderately compact, sticky and plastic. Major minerals are gold, quartz and feldspar (NEDA no date).


Patches of original forest are still found within the gullys. Grasses (GRAMINEAE), and coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) dominate the slope of the hills. In the riverine areas, coconuts, cotton (gapas- Gossypium arboreum L.), corn (Zea mays), coffee (Coffea stenophylla), jack fruit or langka (Artocarpus heterophylla Lmk.) mango (Mangifera indica) banana (Musa sapinetum L.) ipil (Leucaena sp.) papaya (Carica papaya) and other fruit bearing trees are planted. Animals represented in the area are carabao (Bubalus bubalis), cattle (Bos taurus), goat (Capra hircus), dog (Canis familiaris), cats (Felis catus) and chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

The major industries are those engaged in food processing, furniture making and metal works, banking, restaurants, hotels and vehicle repair. Chief farm products are coconuts, corn, banana, mango, poultry and livestock.

The City comprises 40 urban and 40 rural barangays. Eight kilometers south of the Cagayan de Oro City proper is Barangay Macasandig where several archaeological sites were reported. The area is generally rugged and situated on the east bank of Cagayan River (Plate 1). It has an average elevation of 43m above sea level with a highest elevation of 143m (Plate2). Conglomerate formation is found on the northern part of the Barangay while limestone outcroppings are visible in the southern part. Fluvial deposits or flood plains (Plate 3) are found along the east side of the river. Grasslands are found on the slopes of the hills and patches of forests are found in the gullys. Several portion of the slope and flood plains are planted with corn, bananas, rice (Oryza sativa), cotton and fruit trees. Barangay Balulang is located 7 kilometers south of the city Proper and situated on the west bank of Cagayan River. The average elevation is 50m above sea level and the highest peak is 102 meters above mean high conglomerate formation and covered with grasses and patches of balete trees (Ficus spp.) and mangoes. Coconuts and bananas are planted on the slope and flood plain on the west bank of the river. In the south western part of Cagayan de Oro lies Barangay Lumbia which is about 9.7 kilometers south of the city proper on the west bank of the River. The area is generally hilly - plateau of limestone formation. The average elevation is 170 meters while the highest peak is 238 meters above sea level. Cogon grasses and patches dipterocarp forest cover the slopes of the hills and plateaus. Coconuts and fruit trees are planted on some portion of the hills and plateaus of the barangay.


The boundary between Cagayan de Oro and the Province of Bukidnon is predominantly a rolling plateau area. Limestone formation is found on the east side of the Cagayan River. Barangay Walas in the Municipality of Imbatog, Bukidnon is generally hilly and with varying elevations plateaus. Limestone outcroppings are seen in the area and the average elevation is 70m above sea level while the highest elevation is 235 meters. The area is covered with grasses, mango trees, corn and other farm crops.


  Published by the Heritage Conservation Advocates, Cagayan de Oro, Philippines, August 20, 2001. Republished online February 26, 2011.